Background: The effectiveness of Covid-19 inactivated vaccines in pregnant women is unknown. We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of CoronaVac against symptomatic and severe Covid-19 and in preventing progression from symptomatic to severe Covid-19 in pregnant women in Brazil.
Methods: We conducted a test-negative design study in all pregnant women aged 18 to 49 years in Brazil, linking records of negative and positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests to national vaccination records. We also linked records of test positive cases with notification of severe, hospitalized or fatal Covid-19. Using logistic regression, we estimated adjusted odds and VE against symptomatic Covid-19 by comparing vaccine status in test positive (confirmed cases) to that in subjects with a negative test result. We also calculated the odds/VE against progression by comparing vaccine status in symptomatic cases to that in severe Covid-19 cases.
Results: Of 19838 tested pregnant women, 7424 (37.4%) tested positive for Covid-19 and 588 (7.9%) had severe disease. Only 83% of pregnant women who received a first dose of CoronaVac completed the vaccination scheme. A single dose of the CoronaVac vaccine was not effective at preventing symptomatic Covid-19. Effectiveness of two doses of CoronaVac was 41% (95% CI 27.1- 52.2) against symptomatic Covid-19, 85% (95% CI 59.5-94.8) against severe Covid-19 and (75%; 95% CI 27.9- 91.2) in preventing progression to severe Covid-19 among those infected.
Conclusion: A complete regimen of CoronaVac in pregnant women was effective in preventing symptomatic Covid-19, and highly effective against severe illness in a setting that combines high disease burden and elevated Covid-19 related maternal deaths.
Funding Information: This study is part of the VigiVac Fiocruz program, partially supported by a donation from the "Fazer o bem faz bem" program. EPS is funded by the Wellcome Trust [Grant number 213589/Z/18/Z].
Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests. VO, VB, MB, and MB-N are employees from Fiocruz, a federal public institution, which manufactures Vaxzevria in Brazil, through a full technology transfer agreement with AstraZeneca
Ethics Approval Statement: This study analysed de-identified data and was approved by the National Ethics committee (CONEP) (CAAE registration no. 50199321.9.0000.0040).